Category Archives: Children’s Immunizations

Immunizations Recommended for Children and Adolescents

What immunizations are recommended for children and adolescents?

Ask your doctor what shots your child should get. The immunization schedule includes vaccines for:

Chickenpoxroutine_baby_vaccines
Diphtheria
Tetanus
Pertussis (Whooping Cough)
Measles
Mumps
Rubella
Polio
Tuberculosis

Chickenpox:
Chickenpox, also known as varicella, is a highly contagious and self-limited infection that most commonly affects children between 5-10 years of age. The disease has a worldwide distribution and is reported throughout the year in regions of temperate climate. The peak incidence is generally during the months of March through May. Lifelong immunity for chickenpox generally follows the disease. If the patient’s immune system does not totally clear the body of the virus, it may retreat to skin sensory nerve cell bodies where it is protected from the patient’s immune system. The disease shingles (also known as “zoster”) represents release of these viruses down the length of the skin nerve fiber and produces a characteristic painful rash. Shingles is most commonly a disease of adults.

NOTE! Reye’s Syndrome, a deadly disease has been heavily linked with this virus. Learn More.

Learn More about Managing Chickenpox in Children
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Diphtheria
Diphtheria is a contagious infectious disease that primarily affects the upper respiratory tract (respiratory diphtheria), and it is characterized by sore throat, fever, and an adherent membrane (pseudomembrane) on the tonsils and nasopharynx. Diphtheria can also affect the skin and cause localized skin infections (cutaneous diphtheria). Severe infection with diphtheria can lead to systemic involvement and can affect other organ systems as well, such as the heart and nervous system, sometimes leading to death. Diphtheria is caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae.

Transmission occurs via inhalation of airborne respiratory secretions or by direct contact with infected nasopharyngeal secretions or skin wounds. Rarely, infection can be spread by contact with objects contaminated by an infected person.

Risk factors for the development of diphtheria include absent or incomplete immunization against diphtheria, overcrowded and/or unsanitary living conditions, a compromised immune system, and travel to areas where the disease is endemic, especially in individuals who have not obtained booster shots (vaccine).

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Tetanus
Tetanus is a disease caused by a bacterial infection. The bacteria make a toxin, or poison, that causes severe muscle spasms. Tetanus can be very dangerous, but you can get a shot to prevent it. Tetanus is also called “lockjaw” because muscle spasms in your jaw make it hard to open your mouth. Tetanus also causes seizures and makes it hard for you to swallow or breathe.

In the United States, most people have had shots to prevent tetanus, so the disease is relatively rare. People who have never been immunized or haven’t had a booster in the last 10 years are more likely to get tetanus. This includes people who recently moved to the U.S. from countries where tetanus shots are rare.

If you never had tetanus shots as a child, or if you’re not sure if you had them, you’ll need to get 3 tetanus shots in about a 1-year time span. After that, 1 booster shot every 10 years will work for you.

Get a tetanus shot as soon as possible if you have a dirty cut or wound and 5 or more years have passed since your last tetanus shot.

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Whooping Cough
Whooping cough (pertussis) is a disease that causes very severe coughing that may last for months. During bursts of violent coughing, you may make a noise that sounds like a “whoop” when you try to take a breath. You can cough so hard that you hurt a rib.

Whooping cough spreads easily from one person to another. Getting the pertussis vaccine can help you avoid the disease, make it less severe, and prevent you from spreading it to those who are at risk for more serious problems.

With good care, most people recover from whooping cough with no problems. But severe coughing spells can decrease the blood’s oxygen supply and lead to other problems, such as pneumonia. The illness can be dangerous in older adults and young children, especially babies who aren’t old enough to have had the pertussis vaccine.

July 19, 2012 — Whooping cough cases could be headed toward a 50-year high in the United States, and the CDC says the nation is on track for record rates of the disease.

Twice as many cases have been reported so far this year as at the same point last year, a CDC official said today.

Nationwide, nearly 18,000 cases of whooping cough, or pertussis, and nine deaths have been reported in 2012, Anne Schuchat, MD, director of CDC’s National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, told reporters.

More than 3,000 cases have been reported in Washington State alone, where health officials have declared a whooping cough epidemic.

Pregnant women and anyone else likely to come into contact with young babies are being urged to get booster shots to prevent whooping cough, even if they have been vaccinated in the past.

That’s because babies are most likely to die or be hospitalized when they get the highly contagious bacterial disease, which is named for the characteristic cough that accompanies it.

“All of the whooping cough fatalities that have occurred this year have been among babies who were too young to be fully vaccinated”, Schuchat said. “We would need to go back to 1959 to find as many cases reported by this time in the year.”

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Measles
Measles, also known as rubeola, is one of the most contagious infectious diseases, with at least a 90% secondary infection rate in susceptible domestic contacts. It can affect people of all ages, despite being considered primarily a childhood illness. Measles is marked by prodromal fever, cough, coryza, conjunctivitis, and pathognomonic enanthem (ie, Koplik spots), followed by an erythematous maculopapular rash on the third to seventh day. Infection confers life-long immunity. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a rare chronic degenerative disease that occurs several years after measles infection.

Globally, measles remains one of the leading causes of death in young children. According to the CDC, measles caused an estimated 197,000 deaths worldwide in 2007.

Case-fatality rates are higher among children younger than 5 years. The highest fatality rates are among infants aged 4-12 months and in children who are immunocompromised because of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or other causes.

Complications of measles are more likely to occur in persons younger than 5 years or older than 20 years, and morbidity and mortality are increased in persons with immune deficiency disorders, malnutrition, vitamin A deficiency, and inadequate vaccination.

Croup, encephalitis, and pneumonia are the most common causes of death associated with measles. Measles encephalitis, a rare but serious complication, has a 10% mortality.

Unvaccinated males and females are equally susceptible to infection by the measles virus. Excess mortality following acute measles has been observed among females at all ages, but it is most marked in adolescents and young adults.

Despite the highest recorded immunization rates in history, young children who are not appropriately vaccinated may experience more than a 60-fold increase in risk of disease due to exposure to imported measles cases from countries that have not yet eliminated the disease.

The peak incidence of infection occurs during late winter and spring. Infection is transmitted via respiratory droplets, which can remain active and contagious, either airborne or on surfaces, for up to 2 hours. Initial infection and viral replication occur locally in tracheal and bronchial epithelial cells.

After 2-4 days, measles virus infects local lymphatic tissues, perhaps carried by pulmonary macrophages. Following the amplification of measles virus in regional lymph nodes, a predominantly cell-associated viremia disseminates the virus to various organs prior to the appearance of rash.

Supportive care is normally all that is required for patients with measles. Vitamin A supplementation during acute measles significantly reduces risks of morbidity and mortality.

Learn More About Measles and Your Child

Mumps
Mumps is a disease, usually of children, caused by a virus. With mumps, your salivary glands swell. Specifically, these are the parotid glands, and they are located below and in front of each ear.

The virus is spread by direct contact with an infected person’s sneeze or cough. Humans are the only known natural hosts. The disease is more severe if you get it as an adult.

With nearly universal immunization in childhood, there are fewer than 1,000 cases of mumps per year. Most of the reported cases are in children 5-14 years of age. The infection is more common during late winter and spring.

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Rubella (German Measles)
Rubella is a very contagious, easily spread illness caused by the rubella virus. It is usually a mild illness. But in rare cases, it may cause more serious problems.

If you are pregnant and get infected with the rubella virus, your baby (fetus) could become infected too. This can cause birth defects, including serious defects known as congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). CRS can cause hearing loss, eye problems, heart problems, and other complications.

Rubella also is called German measles or 3-day measles.

The rubella virus most often is spread through droplets of fluid from the mouth, nose, or eyes of someone who has the infection. A person who has the infection can spread these droplets by coughing, sneezing, talking, or sharing food or drinks. You can get infected by touching something that has the droplets on it and then touching your eyes, nose, or mouth before washing your hands.

If you have rubella, you are most likely to spread it a few days before the rash starts until 5 to 7 days after the rash first appears. But you can spread the virus even if you don’t have any symptoms.

If you’ve had rubella, it is very unlikely that you will get it again.

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Polio
Polio is an infectious disease caused by polioviruses that can result in symptoms ranging from none to lifelong disability or death. Risk factors are highest for those people unvaccinated against polio, young children, immunosuppressed people, pregnant females, those people living or traveling in areas where polio is endemic, and polio patient caregivers.

Polio symptoms first begin like any other viral illness; progressive symptoms include muscle discomfort and muscle paralysis with late symptoms of muscle atrophy, weakness, extremity disfigurement, and breathing problems in some patients.

People who have risk factors or symptoms should seek medical care immediately.

Diagnosis of polio is made by clinical observation of symptoms and by tests that detect the polio viruses in samples taken from the patient.
There is no medical cure for polio; medical treatment is designed to reduce symptoms.

There are many surgical methods used to help relieve symptoms of polio (mainly bone, joint, and muscle modifications).

Prevention of polio is possible with appropriate vaccination treatments; avoiding contact with polio viruses by good hygiene and avoiding areas where polio is endemic also help prevent polio.

The prognosis for most people who are infected by the polio viruses is good, but those few patients who develop paralytic polio have a prognosis ranging from good to poor, depending on the severity of infection.

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Tuberculosis (TB)
All cases of TB are passed from person to person via droplets. When someone with TB infection coughs, sneezes, or talks, tiny droplets of saliva or mucus are expelled into the air, which can be inhaled by another person.

Once infectious particles reach the alveoli (small saclike structures in the air spaces in the lungs), another cell, called the macrophage, engulfs the TB bacteria.

Then the bacteria are transmitted to the lymphatic system and bloodstream and spread to other organs occurs. The bacteria further multiply in organs that have high oxygen pressures, such as the upper lobes of the lungs, the kidneys, bone marrow, and meninges — the membrane-like coverings of the brain and spinal cord.

Tuberculosis continues to be a major health problem worldwide. In 2008, the World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that one-third of the global population was infected with TB bacteria:
— 8.8 million new cases of TB developed.
— 1.6 million people died of this disease in 2005.
— Each person with untreated active TB will infect on average 10-15 people each year.
— A new infection occurs every second.

In 2009, the TB rate in the United States was 3.8 cases per 100,000 population, a slight decrease from the prior year. Four states (California, Florida, New York, and Texas) accounted for the majority of all new TB cases (50.3%).

With the spread of AIDS, tuberculosis continues to lay waste to large populations. The emergence of drug-resistant organisms threatens to make this disease once again incurable.

In 1993, the WHO declared tuberculosis a global emergency.

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NOTE: Never give a child under the age of 19 aspirin or aspirin products without first talking to your doctor because you could trigger a deadly disease known as Reye’s Syndrome.

More Information:

On WordPress:
https://reyessyndrome.wordpress.com/category/vaccinations/pandemics-a-case-for-vaccinations/
https://reyessyndrome.wordpress.com/category/vaccinations/about-vaccinations/

PDF Downloads & Handouts:
Who Should NOT be Vaccinated: http://www.reyessyndrome.org/pdfs/Vaccines_ VPD-VAC_Who Should NOT Get Vaccinated_.pdf
Vaccination and Milestone Tracker: http://www.reyessyndrome.org/pdfs/CDC_milestones-tracker.pdf
Immunizations Record – 7 – 18 Years of Age: http://www.reyesyndrome.org/pdfs/CDC_parent-version-schedule-7-18yrs.pdf
Immunizations Record – 7 – 18 Years of Age – Spanish Version: http://www.reyessyndrome.org/pdfs/CDC_parent-version-schedule-7-18yrs-sp.pdf
Vaccine Information Statement: http://www.reyessyndrome.org/pdfs/CDC_Vaccination_Statement.pdf
You Can Prevent These 8 Diseases: http://www.reyessyndrome.org/pdfs/vaccines_can_prevent_8_diseases.pdf

Other Resources:
What is a Vaccine: http://www.niaid.nih.gov/topics/vaccines/understanding/Pages/whatVaccine.aspx
Vaccine Resources at CDC: http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/parents/index.html
Reye’s Syndrome: http://www.reyessyndrome.org
CDC Vaccine Video, Get The Picture: http://www.cdc.gov/CDCTV/GetThePicture/index.html

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